The normal range of blood pressure is supposed to be 120/80. The upper number, 120, relates to the systolic pressure, and the lower number, 80 refers to the diastolic pressure.
Blood pressure, or systemic blood pressure, is the blood pressure in the arteries of the systemic circulation (main circulation). We also speak of blood pressure (or simply of shortened tension) because this pressure is also the force exerted by the blood on the wall of the arteries, which tends them (see the article Tensile tension). Strictly speaking, the tension in the wall of the artery results directly from the pressure.
The international unit of pressure measurement is pascal (Pa). However, the use of blood pressure is often measured in centimeters of mercury (cmHg) or millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
It is expressed by two values:
– the systolic pressure (PAS) is the maximum pressure, at the time of the “contraction” of the heart (systole);
– Diastolic pressure (PAD) is the minimum pressure at the time of “relaxation” of the heart (diastole).
Blood pressure is said to be normal when it is less than 14.5 / 9 or 145/90 mmHg and greater than 10/7 or 100mmHg / 7mmHg.
Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure, is characterized by abnormally high blood pressure on the artery walls. In stressful situations or during physical exertion, it is normal that the normal range of blood pressure is higher. But in hypertensive people, the range of blood pressure is higher at all times, even at rest or in the absence of stress.
High blood pressure is responsible for 7 million deaths a year worldwide.
According to the World Health Organization, 30% of men and 50% of women aged 65 to 75 have high blood pressure. Its frequency increases with age, but nowadays it affects younger and younger populations. According to Hypertension Canada, more than 9 in 10 Canadians will suffer from high blood pressure if they do not change their lifestyle. If the situation does not improve, it is estimated that in 2025, the number of hypertensives in the world will have reached 1.56 billion individuals, an increase in the prevalence of 60%.
In France, 31% of 18-74-year-olds are hypertensive, according to the ENNS survey published in 2009. This one specifies that: “out of 15 millions of known hypertensives, 12 are treated by drugs, but the arterial pressure n ‘ is controlled only in half. And one in two hypertensives does not know his condition.
I – What Is The Normal Range Of Blood Pressure?
High blood pressure is defined by an increase in blood pressure figures, usually related to abnormalities in the functioning of the vascular system. High blood pressure is a common cardiovascular disorder.
High blood pressure is defined by two numbers:
– The highest systolic blood pressure (SBP), which measures blood pressure as the heart contracts to eject blood from its cavities. We talk about heart systole.
– The diastolic blood pressure (PAD), the lowest figure, which measures the blood pressure at the moment when the heart is in the period of filling its cavities and thus of rest. We talk about cardiac diastole.
In the long term, high blood pressure is a major risk factor for many diseases.
– Cardiac and vascular disorders (angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke). High blood pressure means that the blood exerts a greater pressure on the artery walls, which weakens them and increases the risk of the artery being blocked by atherosclerosis.
– Heart failure. By imposing extra work on the heart, high blood pressure can cause the depletion of the heart muscle.
– Problems with the kidneys (renal insufficiency) and with the eyes (lesions with the retina being able to lead to a loss of the sight). Again, because of the weakening of the blood vessels.
Since high blood pressure is usually not accompanied by any symptoms, a significant number of hypertensives are unaware of their condition – this is why it is dubbed the “silent killer”.
II – Types of High Blood Pressure and Their Causes
1 – Primary Hypertension (Or “Essential”)
It represents about 90% of the cases. It is caused by a multitude of factors whose effects accumulate over the years. The main ones are related to age, heredity (especially for men) and lifestyle habits. For example, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol abuse, and stress contribute to high blood pressure. This type of hypertension usually appears gradually from age 50, but can also occur before this age.
High salt intake is also associated with elevated blood pressure. According to a survey conducted by Statistics Canada, more than 85% of men and 60% of women have a salt or sodium intake that exceeds the recommended upper limit of 2,300 mg per day1. See the complete table of the maximum tolerated intake of sodium.
2 – Secondary Hypertension
It can result from another health problem, such as a kidney or endocrine problem or congenital anatomy of the aorta. It can also come from frequent use of certain drugs, for example, anti-inflammatories, which create retention of water and salt, bronchodilators, which have a stimulating effect on the heart and nasal decongestants, because of the ephedrine they contain (a substance whose effect resembles that of adrenaline secreted under stress). It can also come from the use of illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Secondary hypertension appears more suddenly and blood pressure is often higher.
III – Symptoms of High Blood Pressure
Arterial hypertension is usually not accompanied by any symptoms, so it is referred to as a “silent killer”. One-third of hypertensives ignore their condition. In people with hypertension, however, there are some signs:
– Fatigue, drowsiness
– Vision disorders (flies in front of the eyes)
– Nausea or vomiting
– Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
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IV – Better Understanding the Measurement of Blood Pressure
Blood pressure consists of systolic and diastolic pressures, which are measured in millimeters of mercury, or mmHg.
– The systolic pressure is the pressure of the blood when the heart contracts and sends the blood into the arteries. It ensures blood supply throughout the body.
– The diastolic pressure is the pressure that continues to exert on the arteries between each contraction. At this point, the heart relaxes and regains its volume, which allows the heart chambers to fill with blood. This pressure tends to increase with age, but past the age of 60, it gradually decreases due to the weakening of the blood vessels of the body.
– Thus, when one speaks of a tension of 120/80, 120 corresponds to the systolic pressure, and 80 to the diastolic pressure.
V – Prevention of High Blood Pressure
Prevention, once the disease is present, is to do everything to have blood pressure figures that remain within the limits of normal. The one and only advice for this disease is simple: Take care of the normal range of blood pressure.
For this, it is essential to:
*** Have Your Blood Pressure Taken: At Regular Frequency.
By a health professional used to doing it.
In good conditions, that is to say, rest for fifteen minutes, outside a period of stress, not having smoked and multiplying the catch, at least three.
*** Respect the Rules of Hygiene of Life:
– Manage your diet. Three factors influence the level of blood pressure: caloric intake, fat intake, and salt intake.
Their reduction will reduce blood pressure figures significantly. A balanced diet also makes it easier to maintain an ideal weight, which is a complementary asset for lowering blood pressure figures.
– Manage your weight. One in two hypertensives is overweight and directly influences the level of blood pressure. The BMI of an adult under 65 should average between 20 and 25.
– Give priority to physical activity. The absence of physical activity has an influence on blood pressure and heart rate. The goal is to practice 30 to 60 minutes of physical activity 3 to 4 times a week. It is possible to split this activity during the day, for example, two quarter-hour or three-ten minutes during the day. All opportunities are good: walking, climbing stairs, doing recreational physical activity, playing sports … If you have not done any physical activity for a long time, talk to your doctor.
– Limit alcohol with moderate consumption, ie more than one or two glasses of wine per meal.
VI – How to Live with High Blood Pressure?
This disease is silent but you must be careful and respect the advice given to you because it is still present and dangerous for your health.
1 – Do You Have a Good Understanding of the Normal Range of Blood Pressure?
Understanding your illness is part of your treatment and care. Knowing the blood pressure numbers you should not go over is especially important. If you have questions or uncertainties tell your doctor.
2 – Have You Taken Care to Adapt Your Life?
– On personal plans? If your blood pressure is balanced your personal life may be normal.
– On the professional plan ? If your blood pressure is balanced your work life may be normal.
3 – Is Your Diet Adapted?
– The first recommendation is to monitor salt intake which should be between 4 and 6 g per day.
– The second is the maintenance of a normal weight, namely a body mass index (weight in kg/size in m2 less than 25.
– If the weight is normal: a reduction of lipids and especially saturated lipids, that is to say, animal fats (red meats, cold meats, cheeses ..) and balanced contributions in polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 6 and omega 3) are paramount.
– If there is excess weight: low-calorie diets (<1200 Kcalories/day) are not recommended. A moderate reduction in intakes is better tolerated and gives better long-term results.
– Generally :
• A balanced diet that respects meals and takes into account physical activity.
*** Lipids (Fats):
– Soft margarine with sunflower for toast, olive oil for cooking, walnut oil, rapeseed, or sunflower for sauces.
– Beware of hidden fats: meats, pastries, fries.
– Dairy products and dairy products at 20%.
*** The Protides:
– 1 to 2 parts meat, egg, or fish a day avoiding fatty meat.
– Three dairy products a day avoiding cheese too rich in fat.
4 – Do You Have Physical Activity?
She participates in the tension balance.
5 – What Are Your Habits?
– Tobacco: it is necessary to stop smoking. This advice to any smoker is particularly useful for those with high blood pressure who are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease.
– Alcohol: its contribution must be moderate and limited to wine. 2 to 3 glasses of wine a day with one or two days a week without consumption. Alcohol has a direct effect on blood pressure.
– Your sleep: no special advice, except if you snore. Talk to your doctor because there may be a relationship.
6 – What Is Your Environment?
– Heat: be careful to be well hydrated, and any dehydration can affect your blood pressure.
– Pollution: no particular recommendation is linked to this disease.
– Travel: Well balanced blood pressure allows you to live normally and therefore to travel normally. It is nevertheless necessary to take some precautions, such as having a prescription with your treatments written in DCI (International Nonproprietary Name) and provide the necessary doses for the duration of your trip.