The skin is the organ that first undergoes the attacks of a polluted environment through the manifestation of various diseases and skin conditions, also called dermatoses. It plays however for our body the double role of sensory envelope and communicator of sensations, as well as a protective barrier against all harmful foreign substances.
Millions of people suffer from a skin condition such as acne, psoriasis, alopecia areata or mycosis. Their origins can be viral, metabolic, immunological, but also psychic…
Note: There is a multitude of skin diseases, but we have selected 36 of the most common skin diseases in the world.
Together let’s see how skin diseases manifest themselves. In this list of common skin diseases, we list 36 skin diseases while helping you to know and distinguish them.
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Skin Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment
Get useful direction from famous dermatologist Dr. Thomas Habif and his specialist team of co-authors in this user-friendly, focused text. Written particularly for the non-specialist, this easy-to-follow book offers exactly the diagnostic and treatment information you want to immediately recognize the 250 skin diseases you’re most likely to see.
Large yet concise, the bullet-point composition gives a classification of secondary, primary, and unusual lesions, pediatric studies, clinical jewels to manage decision making, and more.
1 – Let Me Start This List of Common Skin Diseases with an Eczema
The eczema is manifested by red areas surmounted by a vesicle (small blister) that causes itching. This skin disease may be allergic, acute or chronic.
Contact eczema is characterized by redness, localized swelling, and oozing vesicles, which then develop into crusts, as a result of skin contact with a triggering element. Contact eczema is accompanied by severe itching.
2 – Psoriasis
Psoriasis is common skin diseases characterized by erythemato-squamous lesions: redness surmounted by numerous scales (thin layers of skin that detach from the epidermis). This dander is actually dead cells in excess that accumulate. Psoriasis rarely causes itching.
In many cases of psoriasis, the hereditary factor is to be taken into account. Psoriasis can also be triggered after an episode of stress, an infection (pharyngitis, angina), the taking of certain drugs (Lithium, steroids, beta-blockers), prolonged exposure to the sun or excessive consumption of alcohol.
3 – An Urticaria
Urticaria is an inflammatory reaction that results in localized edema of the dermis. The pink or red lesions with a clear border look like nettle stings. The itching (or pruritus) is intense. Urticaria may appear after:
– Medication. In most cases, these are antibiotics or anti-inflammatories. This is called drug urticaria.
– Ingestion of certain foods and additive substances. This is called food urticaria.
– The contact of certain substances on healthy skin. The lesions appear 15 to 30 min with the contact. This is called contact urticaria.
– Having inhaled ambient air rich in pollen, mold, dust or animal dander. This is called urticaria by pneumallergens.
Urticaria can also be a sign of an infection or a systemic disease.
4 – Shingles
Shingles is a reactivation of the chickenpox virus. This disease is characterized by red and painful vesicles arranged in clusters on the chest, abdomen or face. She can even touch an eye. The lesions are usually localized along a nerve or a ganglion nervous. Shingles are not contagious: it contains particles of the chickenpox virus. A person who touches this liquid without ever getting chickenpox can catch it.
Shingles is linked to the chickenpox virus. Its reactivation occurs when the immune system is weakened by an infection, cancer or a neurological disease. Radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also cause shingles.
5 – A Carcinoma
Carcinoma is a malignant tumor of the skin. Squamous cell carcinomas are distinguished from basal cell carcinomas.
– The signs of squamous cell carcinoma: nodule under the skin (sort of ball, knot under the skin) that can ulcerate. It can metastasize at the level of the ganglia.
– The signs of basal cell carcinoma: it is the most common cancer of the skin since it represents 70% of skin cancers. The lesion may be a red spot, papule or salient nodule. In all cases, the lesion is surmounted by a translucent pearl.
6 – Melanoma
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of the skin. It manifests itself in various forms and can appear anywhere on the body. In most cases, melanoma takes the form of a dark surface or a new abnormal mole. Others sit on a mole, a freckle, a birthmark or a stain already existing. To identify a possible melanoma, apply the ABCDE rule:
– Asymmetry: only a part of the mole changes the appearance and is singularly different from the rest.
– Border: the edges of the mole become irregular, the pigmentation can even sometimes invade the skin.
– Coloring: the color of the mole loses its homogeneity, depigmented areas appear, even gray spots, red or blue.
– Diameter: the size of the mole increases (melanoma is usually larger than 6 mm).
– Elevation or progressive evolution: the dynamic criterion of the evolution of a mole, other than the aforementioned criteria.
* The signs of a melanoma that appears on part of the skin without any abnormality: flat spot, usually dark brown or black (sometimes red-pink or not colored in fair-skinned people). The stain changes quickly expand and then thickens and eventually changes shape and color.
* Signs of melanoma on an old mole: the mole increases surface or changes color and appearance (ABCDE rule).
* The signs of melanoma under a nail: the appearance of a brown or black band in the direction of the length. The band widens and a colored area can also develop on the skin near the nail.
Note: In men, melanoma most often appears in the back. In women, it is more common in the legs.
7 – Measles
Measles is an eruptive fever linked to a paramyxovirus. The measles rash is manifested by small red patches more or less raised a few millimeters in diameter. These plates are wide but always leave between them intervals of healthy skin. Lesions first appear on the face behind the ears and then gradually spread to the whole body.
– Day 2: the cutaneous lesions reach the whole face, the neck, the upper part of the thorax.
– Day 3: the trunk and upper limbs are affected.
– At the 4th day: the lower limbs are affected.
Measles is also characterized by high fever, conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, runny nose, cough, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, and vomiting.
The disease usually occurs in preschool age.
8 – Rubella
Rubella is a contagious viral infection that most commonly affects children aged 5 to 9 years. The rash is not systematic. When it appears, it is characterized by red spots (macules). They first appear on the face and spread rapidly to the trunk and upper limbs.
Moderate fever, muscle, and joint pain, and cervical lymphadenopathy (palpable ganglia in the neck area) are also symptoms of rubella.
9 – Scarlet Fever
Scarlet fever is a poorly contagious bacterial infection that affects the child from 5 to 10 years old. It is caused by a streptococcus. It begins with a sudden fever of more than 38.5 ° C, chills, pain in the throat, stomach upset and vomiting. These first symptoms are comparable to those of angina. Then come the skin symptoms that are characterized by a diffuse red rash without healthy skin interval. It touches the extremities of the limbs (palm of the hands and soles of the feet) and the area around the mouth. The lesions predominate at the folds of flexion (knee, elbow, groin) and can cause itching.
10 – Chickenpox
In the absence of vaccination, chickenpox is one of the common skin diseases in children. Chickenpox is an infectious viral disease. It causes an eruption of small red pimples on the skin and mucous membranes. The redness is surmounted by bubbles measuring from three to four millimeters in diameter, and filled with a clear liquid which is rapidly cloudy. The itching is important. The rash first appears on the neck, chest, stomach, and back, but can gradually affect the entire body, even the scalp, face, hands, and feet. The inside of the mouth and the genital mucosa may sometimes be covered with lesions that may take the form of ulcerations. The person is contagious 24 to 48 hours before the appearance of redness and for about a week.
11 – Roseola
Roseola is a benign viral disease of the child (peak between 7 and 13 months). The rash occurs about three days after the onset of a high fever. Lesions appear as pink spots; sometimes a little in relief, and measure between 3 and 5 millimeters in diameter. They sit most often in the chest, abdomen and the root of the limbs (hips and shoulders).
12 – An Erythema
Erythema results in congestive redness of the skin, diffuse or localized, which fades to vitropression (redness disappears when pressed). It is due to dilation of cutaneous blood vessels (active erythema) or local accumulation of venous blood (passive erythema). The redness may be dry or oozing, with or without small pimples.
Regarding infant diaper rash, it is dermatitis of the seat due to irritation of the skin. It is characterized by a dry or oozing redness, with or without small pimples. In the most severe cases, the skin can be raw and are accompanied by sensations of burns, cracks or ulcerations.
It usually appears on areas in contact with the layer. It takes the form of a W that covers the inside of the thighs, the feces, and the pubis. In case of maceration with the urine, the erythema spreads on the lower back and the abdomen, and in the skin folds of the thighs and buttocks of the baby. When the stool is acidic (diarrhea), the erythema appears around the anus and spreads rapidly.
13 – A Lily of the Valley
Thrush is skin diseases expressed as infection in infants caused by the Candida Albicans fungus. It is manifested by white dots on the tongue, inside the days and lips. It looks like canker sores.
14 – Crusts of Milk
Also known as infantile seborrheic dermatitis, milk crusts are white or yellow patches that appear on the scalp. They are adherent to the skin and may be surrounded by redness. These crusts are linked to a significant secretion of sebum and sweat in the baby’s scalp.
The crusts of milk can overflow the scalp to reach the back of the ears, the root of the eyelashes and the eyebrows. They do not cause itching or pain in the baby.
15 – A Vitiligo
Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented areas more or less extensive. This disease is due to a disappearance of melanocytes, the cells responsible for the production of melanin, the pigment of the skin.
16 – An Impetigo
Impetigo is a bacterial infection of the skin caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus. It can be crusty or bullous. Transmission of the bacteria is by direct contact with the lesions. It mainly affects infants and children.
* Signs of bullous impetigo: lesions appear on trunk, perineum or extremities of limbs. They are characterized by soft, transparent bubbles, surrounded by a red halo. They remain in this form for 2 to 3 days and then break.
* The signs of crusty impetigo: it is formed on healthy skin or on pre-existing skin lesions that become infected by scraping. it usually appears around the orifices (nostrils, mouth, anus) but can extend to the scalp and the rest of the body, especially in cases of scratching.
The lesions appear as vesicles that quickly turn into pustules filled with pus. These then break and become crusts. The area surrounding the lesions is red and inflamed.
17 – A Grain of Milium
The grain of milium is a small white button that does not pierce and that appears most often around the eyes. It is caused by an accumulation of corneocytes (upper cells that form the protective layer of the epidermis). They usually disappear on their own.
18 – Foot-Hand-Mouth Syndrome
Hand-foot syndrome is a contagious viral disease that affects children between 6 months and 4 years of age. It is manifested by small red pimples on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. The skin lesions can also reach the mouth, especially the tongue (the pimples look like canker sores).
Adults can also be infected but in a much rarer way.
19 – A Mycosis
Cutaneous mycosis can occur on all parts of the body (skin folds and skin areas without hair), on the mucous membranes (mouth, genitals), on the nails and scalp. It is an infection caused by the proliferation of fungi.
On the skin, the appearance of the lesions differs according to their location.
* The signs of mycosis in an area of skin folds:
– red, oozing lesions;
– skin cracks and yellowish deposition may occur.
– burning sensations and pain.
* Signs of mycosis on a hairless area:
– granular, rosy or lighter spots than healthy skin;
– they can turn into blisters or crusts.
* The signs of mycosis in the feet (2) – (or athlete’s foot):
– red lesions between the toes, on the plant or the backs of the feet;
– cracks and severe itching.
* The signs of a vaginal mycosis:
– abnormally abundant whitish losses, vulva irritations;
– pain, annoying burning during sexual intercourse and urination.
* The signs of mycosis of the nail (1):
– thickening, discoloration, and detachment of the nail
* Signs of mycosis of the scalp:
– white crusts;
– dander and plaques without hair.
20 – A Wart
Warts are very common benign epidermal tumors most often related to papillomaviruses.
* The vulgar wart: these are most often those that appear on the fingers of the hand. We can feel them and they are the same color as our skin. It is a skin size.
* The soft wart: this wart is soft, its surface is smooth and its outlines are irregular. It pulls yellow or brown, or the same color as the skin. To watch because it can turn into a malignant tumor.
* The flat wart: it takes the form of a micro pod, dark pink, slightly prominent which can measure up to 2 millimeters in diameter. Flat warts usually appear on the forehead, hands, and fingers.
* The plantar wart: as the name suggests, it appears on the soles of the feet and looks like a callus that can take various forms. It is painful to the pressure and hinders walking.
* The filiform wart: it is thinner than the common wart and sits generally on the face, around the mouth and especially the neck (shaving areas). Men are more affected than women.
21 – A Light Bulb
The bulb takes the form of a small bubble filled with a transparent liquid. It is a defense mechanism of the skin during repeated rubbing. Blisters can also appear because of a burn, an allergy or an infectious disease.
22 – Scabies
Scabies is a common skin disease caused by the female of a microscopic mite, the sarcopter. The latter digs galleries in the epidermis and deposits its eggs. The disease is manifested by itching (often more intense at night) and scraped skin lesions. They are located in specific places: between the fingers and the hands, at the front of the wrists, on the elbows and forearms, at the level of the navel, at the level of the genitals in the man and nipples at the wife.
Skin lesions specific to scabies: sinuous and filiform furrows, translucent blisters overcoming redness of the skin, red or purplish lesions (especially in the genital areas of the man), epidermal lamellae that are detached from the skin and crusts (lesions frequent on the face).
In infants, the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands are particularly affected.
23 – Ringworm
Ringworm is a very contagious superficial mycosis in the scalp. In fact, fungi that penetrate the hair. It is characterized by squamous patches sometimes slightly erythematous. The moths are distinguished from suppurative moths.
* Signs of shingling moths: Plates are few in number and are 2 to 4 centimeters in diameter. At their level, the hair is broken and covered with greyish powdery dander.
* The signs of suppurative tinea (also called Kérion de Celsus): it appears in the form of a thick and firm macaroon that can reach several centimeters in diameter. The ringworm is dotted with follicular apertures from which pus and blood come out. Hair lying on the affected area can be extracted easily.
24 – Leprosy
Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by the Hansen bacillus (Mycobacterium very close to the tubercle bacillus).
Signs of indeterminate leprosy: dry, well-defined and flat skin lesions that may be preceded by tingling sensations and cutaneous anesthesia.
If symptoms of indeterminate leprosy are not treated, the disease may progress to:
* Leprosy “tuberculoid” non-contagious (skin patches become insensitive and motor disorders thereafter).
* Contagious “lepromatous” leprosy (infiltrated and shiny, variable patches of color and size that affect the forehead, brow ridges, ears, chin, and limbs). The nasal septum may collapse.
25 – An Angioma
Angiomas are small red spots with variable contour. They are common during early childhood. Hemangiomas (also called “baby strawberry, immature angioma”) and vascular malformations (also called “wine stains”, mature angioma) should be distinguished.
* “The crest of the forehead”: this angioma, present from birth is located on the median line of the forehead and extends on both upper eyelids. The tasks become darker when the baby screams.
* Tuberous angioma: it appears a few months after birth and then regress spontaneously before the age of 3 years.
* Planar angioma: pink spots that appear at birth on any part of the body. Red enough during the first month, they turn pale but never completely disappear.
26 – A Pyoderma
A pyoderma is an infection of the skin caused by bacteria. It can take many forms depending on the type of pyoderma (superficial or deep): itching, plaques, ulcers or inflammation.
27 – A Molluscum Contagiosum
Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection that is manifested by small translucent hard buds with a central point. They have the shape of half-spheres. The lesions are very contagious but disappear spontaneously after a few months. This disease is common in children.
28 – A Prurigo of AIDS
Prurigo is common in HIV-positive people. It is characterized by the appearance of red lesions surmounted by a vesicle. They usually appear on the legs and cause severe itching.
29 – An Erysipelas
Erysipelas is an acute infection of the skin caused by strep. It manifests itself in the form of a red plaque, swollen and painful. Lesions most often occur in the lower limbs, but they can also sit on the face.
30 – Lupus
Lupus is an autoimmune disease that is manifested by redness on the face, on both sides of the nose, alopecia (hair loss), photosensitivity (the skin is sensitive to light) and canker sores. When the disease is manifested only by cutaneous and joint lesions, it is a benign form.
31 – A Pressure Ulcer
An eschar is an inflammatory skin lesion that can result in localized necrosis of the skin. It appears as redness that darkens to become black. The necrotic skin disappears to give way to an ulcer leaving the underlying tissues uncovered: muscles, tendons, sometimes to the bone. The eschar may occur after a burn, trauma or at the level of the points of support.
32 – A Diabetic Foot
The diabetic foot is characterized by ulceration or destruction of foot tissue caused by peripheral neuropathy (a possible consequence of diabetes).
The foot loses sensitivity because of nerve damage: it no longer feels hot, cold and pain.
The natural hydration of the foot decreases and causes dryness, cracks, and calluses.
Bone deformities of the foot may appear.
33 – Acne
Acne is a common skin disease caused by an excess of sebum secreted by the sebaceous glands. Acne lesions on the skin can take the form of:
– comedones (blackheads)
In 95% of cases, the face is the most affected area. Other areas of the body may be covered with pimples: the back (43% of people with acne), the neck (20%) and the anterior part of the chest (20%).
34 – A Pediculosis
Pediculosis is an infestation of the skin with lice. She is contagious.
* Signs of pediculosis of the scalp: strong itching, especially around the ears and around the neck (in 50% of cases, there is no pruritus), lymphadenopathy (inflammation of the lymph nodes) cervical and eczema-like lesions on the neck and shoulders.
* Signs of body pediculosis: severe itching, red spots, and papules in the chest and shoulders.
* Signs of pubic pediculosis: pubic lice are commonly called “crabs”. The itching is important and there may be skin lesions in the pubic area.
35 – A Condyloma
The condylomas are small warts located in the genital tract (vulva, vagina, cervix, anus, penis, and testicles). They are linked to papillomavirus and are therefore sexually transmitted.
* The condyloma acuminata: also called “crest of cock”, they take the form of pinkish or whitish masses.
* Papular condyloma: dry pimples of the same color as the skin or rosés.
* Flat condylomata: usually invisible to the naked eye, they can take the form of red or pink spots. The risks of sexual contamination are high. These condylomas can evolve into cancer of the uterus.
36 – Let Me End This List of Common Skin Diseases with Herpes.
Herpes is a viral and contagious disease caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It affects the skin and mucous membranes. The affected area is covered with clustered vesicles. Small blisters are filled with fluid containing the virus. They tend to break and evolve into open wounds.
* Signs of cold sores (or cold sores): small clustered and oozing blisters, redness around the area.
* Signs of genital herpes: small blisters clustered at the level of the eruption zone. They look like small bubbles filled with a transparent liquid. They cause irritation, itching, tingling, burning, a gene or pain. In humans, the lesions are localized on the penis, the foreskin or the zone that separates them. Inflammation of the anus and rectum (or Ano-rectitis), ulcerations, sensory disturbances may also occur.