Are you aware of any fact about drug abuse and what are drugs? Drugs are any substances, other than food, that is absorbed to change the way the body or mind works. It is a chemical, biochemical or natural compound capable of altering one or more neuronal activities and/or disrupting neuronal communications.

Acting on the central nervous system, the misuse of a drug causes physical and mental disturbances as well as a state of physical dependence, a state of psychological dependence and tolerance.

What are drugs? Drugs are essentially poisons. The effect depends on the amount absorbed.

A small amount acts as a stimulant. A larger amount acts as a sedative. An even larger amount of poisons and kills. This is the most worrying fact about drug abuse.

This is true for any drug. Only the amount needed to achieve an effect changes.What Are Drugs?

But most drugs carry another risk: they directly affect the mind. They can change the user’s perception of what’s happening around him. The actions of the person may be bizarre, irrational, inappropriate, or even destructive.

The drugs block all the sensations, desirable or not. Thus, while providing short-term help in relieving pain, they also erase all ability and alertness by a disturbing thought.

Drugs are drugs designed to speed up, slow down, or somehow change the way the body works, to try to improve its functioning. They are sometimes necessary. But it’s still drugs: they act as stimulants or sedatives, and taking too much can kill. If you do not use these drugs as prescribed, they can be as dangerous as illegal drugs.

Narcotic. The substance causing a state of torpor or artificial sleep. Narcotic comes from the Greek narkè meaning torpor: slowing down of vital functions and/or psychic activity, decreased sensitivity.

Psychotropic. It is all substance that acts on the psyche by modifying the mental functioning, causing changes in perceptions, mood, consciousness, behavior and various psychological and organic functions. The term psychotropic literally means acting, which gives a direction (trope) to the mind or behavior (psycho).

Amazing. Substances whose psychoactive effects can lead to effects of tolerance and dependence. More correctly, this term should only be used to designate the central nervous system depressants such as opiates.

 

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The Encyclopedia of Drug Abuse

By (author)  , By (author)  

With around 200 entries, “The Encyclopedia of Drug Abuse” covers the full range of legal and illegal drugs and how drugs influence civilization. This new title looks at the drug business and the effects of drug abuse in cultures and countries around the earth, as well as in the USA. This comprehensive reference examines various types of drugs and how they function, causes and consequences of abuse, risks, psychiatric issues, social issues, law enforcement efforts, means of prevention, and drugs in specific human societies.

I – Fact About Drug Abuse – Abused by People

This fact about drug abuse is essential because faced with the following problems; some people may use drugs to solve them: hunger, boredom, family problems, fear, physical pain, loneliness, social isolation, fatigue due to lack of sleep, need to be always awake for work or protection, being aware of significant or sudden physical violence, lack of leisure time, falling asleep due to noise or overcrowding, sexual desire or commitment to sex work, lack of medication and medical care, shame, depression and hopelessness.

Mainly among children and adolescents, we can classify the possible reasons for drug use into five types of use:

1 – Experimental Use

Children and young people are naturally curious. As they grow up, they try to explore new experiences. They can experiment with the use of drugs, considered as an experience that provokes new feelings and sensations. Often, friends and peers can persuade them to try drugs.

2 – Occasional Use

Some children and youth may use drugs out of curiosity, some use them for specific goals in their lives such as relaxation, anxiety relief or boredom or being awake. Some young people can also use them to fall asleep, relieve their hunger and their pain, feel good and dream. These types of use are mainly due to specific circumstances and situations. Children and youth can change substances according to the situation to achieve the desired effects. Sometimes they are experienced users who know the types of drugs, their duration and how they are used. If the use of drugs does not cause serious problems, they do not try to stop the use.

3 – Dysfunctional Use

This use causes psychological and social disorders such as relationship problems. Under the influence of drugs, some teens can start fights or argue with others or family members. Academic or work performance decreases. They are no longer able to perform important basic tasks such as finding adequate food and avoiding violence. This behavior could lead to alienation, including the rejection of other youth. The benefits they perceive with drug use make it difficult for them to stop this habit.

4 – Dangerous Use

For this type of use, drugs have adverse effects on physical and mental health. Physical health problems are the result of intoxication. These hazards include traumatic injuries due to accidents and violence, overdose and poisoning, suffocation, burns, and convulsions. Other hazards result from drug delivery routes. Intravenous drug injection is especially dangerous because of the risks of hepatitis, HIV and other infections caused by contaminated needles and syringes, as well as venous collapse and overdose. Smoking drugs can cause respiratory problems and burns. Some substances, such as petrol, benzene, and coca paste, are particularly toxic and can cause health problems even in small amounts.

Although health problems are mainly observed in individuals who regularly and intensively use drugs, they can also be found in experimental and occasional users (eg intoxication).

5 – Dependent Use

Dependence is the name given for the intensive form of drug use. Consumers who are addicted cannot control their use of the drug. They can continue to consume them despite very serious consequences and spend large sums of money to acquire them (hence the risk of sinking into the sex trade).

Dependent consumers may develop a tolerance for certain drugs, that is, their body needs to adjust the dose of these drugs to achieve the same effect. They can also experience the symptoms of withdrawal.

II – Fact About Drug Abuse – They Are Dangerous

The drugs are classified according to a scale of danger, in three categories, according to their effects on the central nervous system.

* Disruptors: cannabis, solvents and volatile products, hallucinogens

* Stimulants: cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine

* Depressants: alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates

1 – AlcoholAlcohol abuse

– Category: Depressants

– His usual name: Drink, drink, strong, etc.

Alcohol is obtained by the fermentation of certain fruits or cereals or by distillation.

– Its effects and risks:

* It acts on the central nervous system by numbing the brain and slowing down the body’s functioning.

* The effect of alcohol will be felt faster if consumed on an empty stomach or too quickly.

* The alcohol passes first through the digestive system, then goes into the blood to finally act on the whole body. It is then slowly eliminated by the liver.

2 – Amphetamines

– Category: Major stimulants

– Their usual name: Speed, peanut, wake-up, pep pill, pill, etc.

His nickname can often vary depending on the appearance of the tablet and the printed logo. Amphetamines are synthetic drugs, they are composed of chemical molecules synthesized in the laboratory, as opposed to substances that come from nature.

– Their effects and risks:

* Amphetamines produce euphoric and stimulating effects, they provide a feeling of energy, an impression of physical and mental power and well-being.

* They reduce appetite and the feeling of tiredness; they increase alertness, cause euphoria and cause logorrhea (verbal diarrhea), restlessness and insomnia.

* Amphetamines can also lead to fever, heart problems, rashes, bruxism (jaw-like cramps that can cause tooth damage), and tics.

In some cases, when taken repeatedly or at high doses, they can cause seizures and even death.

3 – CannabisCannabis Abuse

– Category: Disruptors / hallucinogens

– Her usual name: Pot, marijuana, grass, weed, seal, firecracker, spliff, kif, etc.

There are three types of cannabis products: marijuana, hashish and hash oil.

– Its effects and risks:

* It modifies the communications between the nerve cells and disturbs the senses

* The perception of time and space can be changed and sensory perceptions can be changed (more vivid colors, more distinct sounds).

* In some more fragile people, cannabis can trigger hallucinations and change self-perception.

4 – Magic Mushrooms

– Category: Disruptors / hallucinogens

– Their usual name: Mush, mushroom, mushroom, shrooms.

There are several kinds of magic mushrooms. They can be found in the wild, but they are also grown. They are eaten fresh or dried. They can be brewed as an infusion, but they are more often cooked, smoked or simply chewed, then swallowed.

– Their effects and risks:

* They act on the central nervous system by modifying the sensations and perceptions of reality.

* The person often experiences the following symptoms: sore stomach, diarrhea, heart palpitations, and accelerated breathing.

* Their consumption leads to very high tolerance, the body gets used to it and asks for larger doses to obtain the effects felt at the beginning. The more a person consumes, the higher the risk of intoxication.

5 – Cocaine

– Category: Major stimulants

– His usual name: Coke, powder, coca, snow.

Cocaine is extracted from the leaves of coca, a shrub grown in South America, Indonesia, and East Africa. Cocaine is found in two forms: cocaine and crack. When cocaine is heated with sodium bicarbonate and water, it becomes crack.

– Its effects and risks:

* Cocaine causes contraction of the blood vessels; irregular heart rhythm of high blood pressure.

* It gives a euphoria, a feeling of power. The person who consumes it no longer feels tired, more appetite and more pain.

Cocaine is taken as a crack and has effects that are felt more quickly and intensely, but they last less. This is why a new dose quickly becomes necessary.

6 – Dextromethorphan (DXM)

– Category: Narcotics

– His usual name: Drome, Dex, DXM, Robo, Skittles, Syrup, Triple-C, Tussin.

An opioid-related substance in some cough syrups. At a low dosage, it is a very effective antitussive, but in larger quantities, it is a very powerful dissociative drug.

– Its effects and risks:

* Confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, slurred speech, loss of physical coordination, stomachaches, vomiting, and rapid heartbeat.

* Irreversible brain damage.

7 – Ecstasy

– Category: Disruptors / hallucinogens / stimulants

– His usual name: E, X, XTC, pill, ecstasy, etc. His nickname can often vary depending on the appearance of the tablet and the printed logo.

Ecstasy is a synthetic drug, it is composed of chemical molecules synthesized in the laboratory. Ecstasy is composed of MDMA, a substance derived from amphetamines.

– Its effects and risks:

* It can cause severe hyperthermia (fever), dehydration, urinary retention (unable to empty the bladder) and can be extremely toxic to the liver.

* When its euphoric effect is dissipated, a depressive state often succeeds.

8 – GHB

– Category: Depressants

– Her usual name: GH, juice, liquid ecstasy, liquid X, fantasy, scoop.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate or GHB comes from the family of depressants. It sometimes has a slightly salty and soapy taste that disappears when mixed with a drink. When dissolved in a glass of alcoholic beverage, it is very difficult to detect, since it has neither odor nor flavor.

– Its effects and risks:

* GHB acts on the central nervous system by numbing the brain and slowing the body’s functioning.

* GHB can cause disinhibition (eliminates discomfort), decreased anxiety, euphoria, drowsiness, difficulty coordinating movement, and difficulty speaking.

9 – Heroin

– Category: Disruptors / hallucinogens

– His usual name: Smack, hero.

Heroin is an opiate, it is made from morphine that comes from a plant called Poppy. Heroin is a derivative of morphine. It is in the form of a white powder that can sometimes tend to brown. Most of the time, it is injected intravenously, but it can also be sniffed or smoked.

– Its effects and risks:

* Heroin acts on the central nervous system by numbing the brain, slowing the body’s functioning and disrupting the sensations and perceptions of reality.

* It causes a quiet euphoria, appeasement and a feeling of ecstasy. These sensations are often followed by episodes of drowsiness that are sometimes accompanied by nausea, dizziness and a slowing of the heart and respiratory rate.

10 – Ketamine

– Category: Disruptors / hallucinogens / stimulants

– His usual name: Special K, vitamin K, ket, ketty, ké.

An anesthetic used in human or veterinary medicine, ketamine is a disrupter of the central nervous system; it alters perceptions and can cause hallucinations.

It is found in the form of powder, liquid and, more rarely, tablets or capsules often presented as being speed or ecstasy.

– Its effects and risks:

* Ketamine causes a feeling of flutter, disorientation, nausea, and dizziness.

* It can also cause anesthesia (loss of sensitivity), analgesia (insensitivity to pain) and severe paralysis with preservation of the state of consciousness called K-Hole.

* Consumption of ketamine may cause damage to the nasal cavities (when snorted) and, in the long term, chronic consumption may cause severe damage to the urinary tract.

11 – LSDlsd drug abuse

– Category: Disruptors / hallucinogens

– His usual name: Buvard, acid.

LSD acts on the central nervous system by disrupting the sensations and perceptions of reality.

It comes in the form of a blotter (a paper impregnated with a drop of LSD solution), tablets, a microtip (it looks like a piece of a pencil lead) or, more rarely, in liquid form.

– Its effects and risks:

* LSD is a powerful hallucinogen that intensely modifies sensations.

* It causes hallucinations, uncontrollable giggles or delusions.

* The effects last from five to twelve hours, sometimes longer. The person may feel anguish, panic, paranoia or fear.

12 – Methamphetamine

– Category: Major stimulants

– Its usual name: Crystal meth, tina, ice, ice, speed, chalk, jib, speed, meth.

Methamphetamine is a substance composed of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (two substances found in some cold medicines) and is mixed with many of the following products: muriatic acid, ether, sulfuric acid, insecticides, solvents, fertilizers, iodine, caustic lye, etc.

– Its effects and risks:

* In small doses, it produces euphoric and stimulant effects similar to those of amphetamines, but it is more potent and its potential for dependence and toxicity is also higher.

* Because of its intensity, can cause a state of general exhaustion, aggression and depressive state up to suicidal ideation.

* It is also likely to lead to risky sexual behavior.

13 – Nicotine

– Category: Stimulants

Nicotine (which owes its name to the fact that tobacco was introduced in France by Jean Nicot) is an alkaloid present in solanaceous plants, especially in tobacco leaves. It mimics the action of a natural neuromediator, acetylcholine. It binds to nicotine receptors in the brain.

– Its effects and risks:

* The absorption of nicotine by the inhalation of cigarette smoke is very fast, of the order of a few seconds. Nicotine reaches the brain twice as fast as if it were given intravenously.

* Heavy smokers experience impaired learning and memorization mechanisms.

* Nicotine overdose is manifested by the following symptoms: nausea, palpitations, headache (a headache), insomnia, diarrhea, lipothymia (malaise, dizziness, lightheadedness, etc.), dry mouth, hypersalivation, abdominal pain, decreased auditory acuity, general weakness, etc.

14 – PCP – Mescaline

– Category: Disruptors / hallucinogens

– His usual name: Mescaline, Mess, angel dust, peace pill, fairy dust, crystal.

Originally created as an analgesic, it was quickly removed from the market because of its dangerousness and is now produced only by clandestine laboratories.

– Its effects and risks:

* PCP acts on sensations and perceptions of reality.

* It is a very powerful hallucinogen that acts on all the senses and whose effect lasts between 4 and 6 hours.

* It also produces general anesthesia by reducing or eliminating the sensitivity and perception of pain. PCP is one of the most dangerous drugs available because it can cause psychological and physical damage that can be irreversible. 

15 – Rohypnol

– Category: Depressant

– His usual name: Rocha, rock, ropes, roofies, roples, ruffles, rophies.

It’s Powerful tranquilizer part of the benzodiazepine family. Its reputation as a “drug of rape” has made it a sedative quickly popular because of the periods of total amnesia it causes when consumed with alcohol.

Rohypnol can be swallowed, chewed, dissolved under the tongue or in liquid, crushed, snorted, injected and smoked. It is tasteless, odorless, colorless and, therefore, can be mixed with any beverage. It is absorbed by the gastrointestinal system and rapidly redistributed in human tissues. It is difficult to detect because, once ingested, it is quickly found in the urine and very little in the blood.

– Its effects and risks:

* Its effects are felt within 20 to 30 minutes after ingestion and up to eight hours, its optimal effect occurring between one and two hours later.

* This product greatly reduces the inhibition of the consumer.

* Depending on the absorbed dose, it will have a loss of judgment and memory, a staggering gait, amnesia and may even, in high doses, lose consciousness.

16 – Solvents and Volatiles – Inhalation Drugs

These are the toxic narcotic vapors that are inhaled in order to quickly reach euphoria. Of the more than 1,000 household products and other common products that can be misused as an inhalation drug, the most commonly used products are shoe polish, glue, toluene, gasoline, lighter fluid, oxide nitrous or whippets, spray paint, correction fluid, cleaning fluid, amyl nitrite or poppers, cloakroom or rush deodorants and paint thinner or other paint solvents.

– Their effects and risks :

* Are similar to anesthetics, which slow down bodily functions.
* After initial euphoria and release of inhibitions, drowsiness, dizziness, and agitation may occur.

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