What are the different types of personality? Some 2000 years ago, the Greek philosopher THEOPHASTE asked: “Whereas the same sky extends over same Greece and all the Greeks receive the same education, how is it that we are endowed with characters as variously constituted? ”

Why homozygous, genetically identical twins do not necessarily behave in the same way? Why do individuals from the same background who have received the same education do not necessarily behave in the same way?Types of Personality

All these questions are important for the one who wants to explain the behavior of the man. And these questions call for the notion of personality. This notion holds an important place in Psychology.

The concept of personality is a polysemic concept and there is no single definition of personality that is accepted by all authorities in this area. For our part, we retain the one proposed by MADDI S.

I – Definition of the Concept of Personality

Theorist MADDI proposed the following definition: “Different types of personality are the set of characteristics and trends that determine the commonalities of different behaviors, thoughts, feelings, actions… people. Behaviors that present a continuity in time cannot be attributed to the only social and biological pressures of the moment. ”

This idea contains some strong ideas:

– Note that nothing in the definition suggests limiting the influence of the type of personality to certain behaviors, certain situations or to some people to the exclusion of all others.

– The theory of personality is a general theory of behavior, an attempt to understand or describe the behavior of all beings at any time.

– MADDI’s expression, “commonalities and differences”, evokes an important aspect of human behavior that is expressed by the saying that each of us is in some ways: like everyone else – like others – like no one else.

Did you know? The type of personality develops according to stages. Keep in mind that in the following lines we will discuss the stages of personality development according to Sigmund Freud – particularly the (psycho-affective) stages.

II – Stage of Personality Development According to Sigmund Freud.

Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) proposed that the development of a type of personality would go through several psycho-sexual stages. Precisely this process of development creates different types of personality. At each stage, libidinal energy would be a particular aspect of behavior. If the individual is able to progress through each stage without serious difficulties, he will express his libidinal energy in an adult or mature manner. However, any imbalance caused by frustration or excessive gratification may result in fixation at a stage.

Generally, we distinguish the following stages:

– The oral-oral stage (0 – 2) years

– The anal stage (2 years – 3 years)

– The phallic stage (4 years – 5 years)

– The period of latency (6 years – puberty)

– Adolescence or puberty age.

1. The Oral Stage

The first psycho-sexual stage is the oral or oral stage. Libidinal energy is focused on oral activities including diet and weaning. This stage extends from birth to the 2nd year of life. Any fixation at this stage means that the adult may show a level of oral activity such as chewing gum, nail-biting, etc.

2. The Anal Stage

During this stage, the libidinal energy is centered on the resolution of the external conflicts experienced by the child. Here he is learning the toilet. The way parents lead this workout will influence the characteristics of the adult type of personality. Fixation at this stage can lead to various difficulties in adulthood such as difficulties in giving or receiving one’s love or approval, stubbornness, and clashes between cleanliness and uncleanliness.

3. The Phallic Stage

At this stage, the source of libidinal pleasure is in the genital organs, particularly infantile masturbation and the observation of anatomical differences between the sexes. Freud believed that at this time the child should solve the Oedipus complex. According to him, the child has sexual desires against the parent of the opposite sex or experiences rivalry with same-sex parents. However, the fear of being punished leads the child to identify with parents of the same sex or to adopt similar behaviors.

4. The Latency Period

At the end of the phallic stage around 5 to 6 years old, FREUD believed that the child was entering a period of latency devoid of any sexual preoccupation. At this stage, the libidinal energy is reduced.

5. Adolescence or the Age of Puberty

At this stage, the libido is again activated and the individual tries to reach adult sexuality. If he has had difficulties in previous stages, the individual may be hard to reach or not at all to give or receive adult love. In some ways, this is also the end of the construction process of creating different types of personality.

III – The General or Determining Factors of Personality

What determines the different types of the personality of an individual?

There is no single answer to this question because many variables are involved in the development of the personality of the individual. There are among others: heredity; culture, family, belonging to a group, experiences.

1. Heredity and Culture

Some people are convinced that some of the fundamentals of personality are genetic. Expressions such as “she is quite like her father”, “it is from his family that he holds these traits” imply that the personality is explained by heredity. This determines the physical appearance, the color of the eyes and that of the hair.

Those who believe that the type of personality is largely hereditary are the most radical of the innate.

According to anthropologists, culture plays an important role in the formation of personality. Any individual born in the movement of a specific culture cannot avoid admitting certain values and obey the norms of this culture. Each culture is distinguished by its attitudes and reactions that it encourages.

However, even if we are to recognize that culture has an effect on the formation of the personality of individuals, we must not assume that all individuals react in a uniform way to the pressures of their cultures or that all cultures produce homogeneous populations.

2. Family and Group Membership

Parents act on the development of their children in three ways:

– Through their own behaviors, they create situations that arouse a certain behavior on the part of their children;

– They serve as a reference and model to which children often identify closely;

– They choose to reward or punish certain conduct.

In addition, the family situation also influences the differences in behavior of individuals. Indeed, the pressures that she (the family) exerts depend on her socio-economic level, her size, birth order, race, religion, parental education and so on.

Let’s not forget also that individuals are part of a wide variety of groups in their lifetime.

3. The Lived Experiences

In addition to these genetic, cultural, family and social particularities, the life of each individual is unique because of the specific events and trials that everyone goes through. These circumstances can have decisive effects on the type of personality.

IV – Different Types of Personality

There are several variants of the personality. Some writers have spoken of traits, characters, and others have analyzed the personality from an angle of behavior, attitudes, and abilities.

Note: These types of personality we are going to address are more professional.

To each type of personality corresponds:

– strengths or special abilities

– observable behavioral characteristics (verbal and nonverbal language, dress code, choice of the environment)

– a specific mode of perception of the environment,

– a privileged communication channel to enter into relations with other different types of personality.

– the psychological needs which condition the development of his energy, his motivation, his strengths and most of his decisions concerning the choice of professional activity and his way of life.

– the choice of activity or profession.

– negative points under stress when the psychological needs are not satisfied. “Negative” points are unsuitable for the situation. The unsatisfied needs “weaken” the person and reveal specific and predictable ways to enter under stress.

For pedagogical reasons, personality types are described as “pure” types, that is, subjects that are 100% of an exclusive type of personality, which of course does not exist in reality.

Indeed each person is made up of a unique and specific arrangement of the six different types of personality described below.

1. The Emphatic Type of Personality

He is sentimental; he needs the other to express himself and needs human contact. He is not safe enough and makes mistakes; and to motivate him, he must be encouraged to adopt a more productive behavior, that is, to tell him things that take into account his psychological needs.

In the professional field, you have to let him customize his office as he sees fit. We must also appreciate his work in public. Through these actions, we show him that he is considered for his person. Autocratic style must be avoided with order and imperative. Also, avoid showing his mistakes and placing him in an austere environment far from others.

In everyday life, they are sociable people. They love the company of others. They value a lot of respect and mutual respect. They like appreciated and expect to be appreciated in return.

•        The strong points :

Empathic is sensitive, warm and compassionate. He likes to take care of others, to be useful, to give to others while taking care of their comfort.

•        Behaviors :

He dresses to please others. His face is often smiling. He likes to work in a group and seeks benevolent atmospheres, in a friendly and personalized decor.

•       The mode of perception and communication:

He perceives people and situations first and foremost by his feelings. His language expresses many feelings and emotions.

•        Psychological needs:

He wants to be recognized as a person, to feel loved for himself and not for his work or his opinions. He also seeks the satisfaction of sensory needs (seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting).

•       The choice of activity:

He will be attracted by relationships, service or support professions (nurses, psychologists, social workers, hostesses), or professions related to the use of the senses.

•       The negative points under stress:

He will tend to over-adapt to the needs of others, he has trouble asserting himself and can make absurd mistakes.

2. The Dreamer types of personality

He expresses himself when he is outside of human contact. He passively avoids making decisions. To motivate him to tell him exactly what you expect from him and let him work alone. When you give him orders, be precise, concise, direct and complete. You need to clearly define the authority you delegate to him. Avoid laissez-faire style and benevolent style. Also, avoid placing it in an effervescent medium.

•        The strong points :

The dreamer is calm, imaginative and thoughtful. It is effective if the spots are clearly explained and can work alone. He keeps his calm and his cool even in storms.

•        Behaviors :

He dresses according to the weather and does not worry about his appearance. He is looking for a secluded and quiet place to work efficiently and sometimes on concrete and repetitive tasks that can annoy others.

•     The mode of perception and communication:

He takes the initiative and expects clear and precise instructions to get into action. Little talk if we do not go looking for it. Rather reserved, he does not like to express his feelings.

•       Psychological needs:

He has a great need for calm and solitude.

•        The choice of activity:

He is attracted by solitary activities allowing a rich interior life: researchers, craftsmen and some artists, writers.

•       The negative points under stress:

In an agitated, overly stimulating environment, he returns to his shell, feels overwhelmed and finds it difficult to complete his task in a timely manner.

3. The Worker or the Worker

He likes work, he does not delegate power, he controls excessively and he becomes meticulous. To motivate it, use expressions like “your idea is great”, “you did a good job”.

Give him a diploma or distinction. When you give him work, you have to give him deadlines for his project. Pay tribute to his hard work and sense of responsibility.

Avoid being familiar and too intimate and upset your actions. Also, avoid canceling a project without explaining why and in a logical way.

•        The strong points :

The Worker is logical, responsible and organized. He is able to think with logic, has a good mind of analysis and synthesis. It is a very structured rational, a pragmatic appreciated for its seriousness, its sense of order, its efficiency, its respect for schedules.

•        Behaviors :

He dresses according to the situation with a search for order and cleanliness. To give the best of himself, he seeks to work with one or two people, and in a functional, orderly environment where everything is in its place.

•       The mode of perception and communication:

He thinks first by classifying people, events, ideas. His language expresses above all thoughts and very little emotions.

•           Psychological needs:

He needs to be recognized for what he does and for his talent as a planner.

•          The choice of activity:

It’s often an engineer, a technician, a scientist, a manager.

•       The negative points under stress:

He tends to over-control, overwork and to do everything himself.

4. The Rebel

If someone has a rebel type of personality he likes to play a lot and is distracted. He has trouble finding what to do, he accuses others and shows his negative side of rebelliousness. To motivate him, you have to joke with him and be playful. Let him take some liberties over conventions and office decorations. You have to give him creative tasks. It is necessary to avoid too strict time constraints; also advice and sermons. Projects that require long-term planning and daily monitoring must be avoided.

•        The strong points :

The rebel is creative, playful and spontaneous. Radiant, enthusiastic, he is a person who likes contacts, group work in a stimulating and fun atmosphere. He lives the moment and likes to play and joke.

•        Behaviors :

He dresses to be original and attract attention. Very expressive and laughing. He works well in an environment rich in stimulating and fun contacts.

•      The mode of perception and communication:

He reacts by saying right away what he loves or hates.

•      Psychological needs:

He is looking for playful, dynamic contacts.

•       The choice of activity:

He is attracted by the professions of creativity, recreation, independent and artistic professions.

•     The negative points under stress:

Deprived of stimulating and playful contacts, he will systematically challenge, blame others severely and defend himself from any responsibility for what happens to him.

5. The Promoter

Promoter type of personalities likes challenges and likes to take initiatives. He does not like others adequately but manipulates them. To motivate him, you have to give him strong competitors, tell him clearly what you expect from him as a final result and let him do as he pleases. Offer him immediate rewards. Avoid being vague, give him responsibilities and hold him accountable for long-term projects.

•        The strong points :

The Promoter is adaptable, charming, and full of resources. He likes action, risk, he works with intuition, he likes to charm even without challenges of seduction. It is a go-getter that the excitement of success stimulates.

•        Behaviors :

He dresses to show his success. He works as well alone as in a group because he is very adaptable. He enjoys luxury and luxurious surroundings.

•      The mode of perception and communication:

It acts first and then adjusts the action based on the results. Firm and direct in his remarks, he does not express his feelings considering that it is a sign of weakness.

•       Psychological needs:

He needs excitement and seeks thrills.

•       The choice of activity:

He appreciates the trades of the action and activities (sales, negotiation, sports, speed …) with strong stakes.

•       The negative points under stress:

He manipulates his entourage and biases the situation to his benefit.

6. The Perseverant

He continues his opinions to the end. He tends to find what is wrong, but never what goes well. He makes negative criticisms and imposes his opinions. To motivate him, one must recognize his dedication. Show him what you admire and respect in him. Name him at the head of a committee to make important decisions. We must avoid autocracy with him and the power games. Also avoid redefining, even changing game rules for minor issues.

•        The strong points :

The Perseverant is conscientious, committed and observant. It is above all a man or a woman of opinion and conviction. He goes to the end of his projects and you can count on his commitments and his word. They are able to defend their point of view with strength and tenacity.

•        Behaviors :

He dresses according to standards and sometimes to show his commitments. He seeks to work with small groups and in a “serious”, traditional environment that respects personal, cultural and professional standards.

•      The mode of perception and communication:

He then first evaluates people and situations. His language expresses opinions, many judgments, and few emotions.

•       Psychological needs:

He needs to be recognized above all for the value of his opinions and also for the quality of his work.

•      The choice of activity:

He seeks the power of influence to pass his convictions, a high hierarchical position. They are often leaders in the world of economics, politics, trade unionism…

•       The negative points under stress:

They tend to crusade against those who do not share their point of view.

Note :

When considering the behavior of individuals, we see that a number of common features are clearly identifiable, and can be grouped into categories corresponding to six different types of the personality of the model of the Process Communication: Perseverant, Worker, Empathic, Promoter, Dreamer or Rebel. If the names of the personality types are evocative, we must exclude any negative connotation and any value judgment. None of these types are better or worse than others, nor is it better to have blond hair than brown hair. It is not better to be a Worker than a Promoter, a Rebel or a Perseverant; it is neither good nor bad! Each type of personality has characteristics with strengths and weaknesses more or less adapted to a situation (activity, function, job, objective).

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